Review on Kukkiladhi choornam used in traditional medicine and research activities

M.Navinkumar1, M.Ahamed Mohideen2

1 PG Scholar Deparment of Sirappu Maruthuvam, Palayamkottai.

2 Assistant lecturer, Deparment of Sirappu Maruthuvam, Palayamkottai


Siddha system of medicine is the unique system among the Indian system of medicine. With the blessing of saints, the world is focusing the siddha system in recent years. Thousands of medicines are prescribed for skin disease. Eczema is the name for a group of conditions that cause the skin to become red, itchy and inflamed. The Kukkiladhi choornam is the one of best medicine for eczema to treat and managing the disease. It consists Chukku (Zingiber officinale), Thippili(Piper longum), Milagu(Piper nigrum), Karunjeerakam(Nigella sativum), Vellarugu(Enicostema axillare), Kukkil(Shorea robusta) . This paper reviews the antibacterial, antifungal anti microbial activity and ethnomedicine which followed by some tribal treating the skin disease.

Keywords: Eczema, karappan, Siddha medicine, Kukkiladhi choornam


Siddha medicine is the traditional medicine, which mostly followed by tamilans. Among AYUSH Indian medicine system, Siddha system consist vast medicine for several disease. In recent decades, public and researchers focusing siddha system of medicine. So, its the time to expose to the knowledge of Siddha medicine in research. Several siddha medicines are prescribed for skin diseases in literature. Among them Kukkiladhi chooranam is the wonderful drug for eczema, which prescribed in Virana roga karappan chikitchai. Eczema is a term for a group of medical conditions that cause the skin to become inflamed or irritated. The most common type of eczema is known as atopic dermatitis, or atopic eczema. Atopic refers to a group of diseases with an often inherited tendency to develop other allergic conditions, such as asthma and hay fever. Symptoms like No matter which part of the skin is affected, eczema is almost always itchy. Sometimes the itching will start before the rash appears, but when it does, the rash most commonly appears on the face, back of the knees, wrists, hands, or feet. It may also affect other areas as well. Affected areas usually appear very dry, thickened, or scaly. In fair-skinned people, these areas may initially appear reddish and then turn brown. Among darker-skinned people, eczema can affect pigmentation, making the affected area lighter or darker. Population-based studies on epidemiology of AD in India has been rare and most epidemiological data that is available is based on hospital-based studies. A rising trend in AD has been observed in India also in last four decades. only 0.01% (3 out of 2100) children in a South Indian study had AD. This relative rarity has been attributed to different dietary habits and climate.In a 12-month study of prevalence of symptoms of asthma, allergic rhinoconjuctivitis and atopic eczema in the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISSAC, phase 1), the prevalence of atopic eczema in 56 countries had been found to vary between 3-20.5%. The Kukkiladhi chooranam medicine consists Chukka(Zingiber officinale), Milagu(Piper longum), Thippili(Piper nigrum), Karunjeerakam(Nigella sativum), Vellarugu(Enicostema axillare), Kukkil(Shorea robusta). This paper exposes the reviews of pharmacological activities, chemical constituents and tribals which following the medicine.

Zingiber officinale

சூலைமந்தம் நெஞ்செரிப்பு தோடமேப் பம்மழலை

மூலம் இரைப்பிருமல் மூக்குநீர்- வாலகப

தோடமதி சாரந் தொடர்வாதகுன்மநீரித்

தோடம்ஆ மம்போக்குஞ் சுக்கு.(அகத்தியர் குணபாடம்)

வாதப்பிணிவயிறுதாற் செவிவாய்

வலிதலை வலிகுலைவலியிரு விழிநீர்

சீதத்தொடுவரி பேதிப்பலரொ

சிகமலிமுகமுக முகமிடிகபமார்

சீதச் சுரம்விரி பேதச் சுரநோய்

தெறிபடுமெனமொழி குவர்புவி தனிலே

ஈதுக் குதவுமி தீதுக் குதவா

தெனும்விதி யிலைநவ சுறுகுணமுனவே


A total of 66 plant species belonging to 45 families have been recorded. Seventy-five medications for 15 skin diseases and cosmetics were documented. The mode of application was topical as well as oral administration. Zingiber officinale is the major plant. (Khan et al,2010) In prior in vitro studies, it has been shown that the water or organic solvent extract of ginger possesses antioxidative and antiinflammatory properties. In this study, we evaluated whether ethanol extract of ginger (GE) possesses anti-tumor-promoting effects in a mouse skin tumorigenesis model. (Santosh et al,1996) Results demonstrated that crude extract of Zingiber officinale was able to reduce rat paw and skin edema induced by carrageenan, 48/80 compound and serotonin. ( Penna et al,2003). Treatment with Z. Officinale attenuated UVB-induced hyperplasia, infiltration of leukocytes, and dilation of blood vessels in the dermis of mice. Z. officinale, gingerol, and shogaol show potential as anti-inflammatory agents to protect skin against UVB irradiation damage. Ginger extract significantly reduced the elevated expression of NFκB and TNF-α in rats with liver cancer. Ginger may act as an anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory agent by inactivating NFκB through the suppression of the pro-inflammatory TNF-α. (Shafina et al,2008)Pungent compound isolated fom ginger has shown anti-inflammatory effects, but its inhibitory effects on Allergic dermatitis are unknown. (Gunyuk et al,2016) This study has documented the alternative medical approach in the management of infantile skin diseases. The cultural relevance of plants calls for sustainable use of plant resources. This research finds application in primary health care, microbiology, and in cosmetic industries for the development of new or improved baby skin care products. Erinoso et al. A method for prevention or therapy of pollen allergy, allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, asthma or urticaria by adminis tration of zingiber officinale, (Satoshi et al.,2002)

Zingiber officinale Roscoe is one of the plants that are central to the lives of traditional societies in Africa it has been reported as traditional folkloric medicine, the plant roots are used in some parts in Sudan for wound healing, this study aimed to assess the antibacterial and wound healing activity of Zingiber officinale. The results of in vitro antimicrobial activity of the extract gave clear zones of inhibition on the standard strains of Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiellia pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus, Aisha et al. Zingiber officinale is used for headache stomache, asthama by tribals. (Padal et al,2012) The antifungal activity of oils was screened against T. rubrum and M. gypseum by using disc diffusion method and microdilution method. The inhibition zone of mixture of oils (turmeric and ginger) is higher than single oils and reference antibiotics i.e Clotrimazole (36 mm against T. rubrum, 41 mm against M. gypseum) and Ketoconazole (60 mm againstT. rubrum, 26 mm against M. gypseum). (Meenakshi et al,2013) This study showed that ethanol extract of Zingiber officinale rhizome inhibited carrageenan – induced suplantar edema in rats. Carrageenan – induced rat paw edema is a valuable test used in predicting the value of antiinflammatory agents acting by inhibiting the mediators of acute inflamm ation. The chief constituents of zinger include sequiterpene, gingerol, Cult 1403 and inoleoresin. The extract of Z. officinale rhizome exhibited analgesic activity in mice, by inhibiting the acetic acid – induced writhing. This is a model of visceral pain, which is a very sensitive test for analgesic drug development. Raji et al. Anti-Inflammatory Effects Ginger contains potent anti-inflammatory compounds called gingerols. These substances are believed to explain why so many people with osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis experience reductions in their pain levels and improvements in their mobility when they consume ginger regularly. One of the mechanisms by which ginger exerts its ameliorative effects could be related to inhibition of prostaglandin and leukotriene biosynthesis. Antioxidant activity Ginger roots extracts contain polyphenol compounds (6-gingerol and its derivatives), which have a high antioxidant Activity.

Antioxidant compounds are widely used compounds to counter the free radicals mediate oxidative stress in the cell. Antioxidant activity is due to the presence of flavones, isoflavones, flavonoids, anthocyanin, coumarin, lignans, catechins and isocatechins. The total phenolic content in the alcoholic extract of the dried rhizome of ginger was 870.1 mg/g extract.

Extract exhibited 90.1% of DPPH radical scavenging activity with the IC50 concentration of 0.64 μg/ml. Antioxidant property of ginger is an extremely significant activity which can be used as a preventive agent against a number of diseases. Antimicrobial activity of ginger Ginger has been traditionally exploited for having broad range of antimicrobial activity against both gram positive and gram negative bacteria and fungi. In vitro studies have shown that active constituents of ginger inhibit multiplication of colon bacteria, these bacteria ferment undigested carbohydrates causing flatulence, this can be counteracted with ginger. It inhibits the growth of Escherichia coli, Proteus sp, Staphylococci, Streptococci and Salmonella. Ginger has strong antibacterial activity and to some extent antifungal properties. Ginger inhibits Aspergillus sp, a fungus known for the production of a flatoxin, a carcinogen. Fresh ginger juice showed inhibitory action against Aspergillus niger, Sacharomyces cerevisiae, Mycoderma sp. and Lactobacillus acidophilus. Thus, ginger which is a normal ingredient of our routine food preparations can provide protection against our natural enemies like bacterial and fungal pathogens (subash et al,2014)


Chemical analysis of ginger shows that it contains over 400 different compounds. The major constituents in ginger rhizomes are carbohydrates (50–70%), lipids (3–8%), terpenes, and phenolic compounds. Terpene components of ginger include zingiberene, β-bisabolene, α-farnesene, β-sesquiphellandrene, and α-curcumene, while phenolic compounds include gingerol, paradols, and shogaol. These gingerols (23–25%) and shogaol (18–25%) are found in higher quantity than others. Besides these, amino acids, raw fiber, ash, protein, phytosterols, vitamins (e.g., nicotinic acid and vitamin A), and minerals are also present.

Ginger, ginger rhizome, and its major active components: 6-gingerol, 6-shogaol, and 6-paradol.

1. The aromatic constituents include zingiberene and bisabolene, while the pungent constituents are known as gingerols and shogaols. Other gingerol- or shogaol-related compounds (1–10%), which have been reported in ginger rhizome, include 6-paradol, 1-dehydrogingerdione, 6- gingerdione and 10-gingerdione, 4- gingerdiol, 6-gingerdiol, 8-gingerdiol, and 10-gingerdiol, and diarylheptanoids. The characteristic odor and flavor of ginger are due to a mixture of volatile oils like shogaols and gingerols.


3. Anticancer, anti coagulant, anti inflammatory, anti emetic, actinocicopetive, anti oxidant, cardio vascular, gastro intestinal effects, anti tissue effect, immunomodulatory effects, antimicrobial effects, radioprotective effect, weightloss effect, antiarthritic, lipid effect, antigenotoxic, mutagenicity Rajesh et al. Antimicrobial: Antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal, Kathi et al.



கட்டி எதிர்நின்று கடுநோயேல் லாம்பணியும்

திட்டி வினைஅகலும் தேகமெத்த- புட்டியாம்

மாமனுக்கு மாமனென மற்றவர்க்கு மற்றவநாங்

காமமெனுந் திப்பிலிக்கும் கை

-(தேரன் வெண்பா)

The antidermatophytic activity of sequentially extracted petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol and water extracts from P. longum leaf against Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. rubrum, T. tonsurans, Microsporum fulvum and M. gypseum. Better activity of chloroform and methanol extracts was observed. (Jayshree et al,2012) This study screens P. longum root for opioid type analgesia using rat tail-flick method and for NSAID type analgesia using aceti c-acid writhing method. Pentazocine (ip) and ibuprofen (oral) are used as respective drug controls. This indicates that P. longum root has weak opioid but potent NSAID type of analgesic activity. Vedhanayaki et al. Anti-inflammatory activity: The fruit decoction showed anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenin induced rat paw edema71. Immunomodulatory activity: The immunoregulatory potential of P. longum and piperinic acid, one of its active constituent, in Balb/C mice (in vivo) and human PBMCs (in vitro) models showed a dose dependent decrease of lymphocytes (CD4+ and CD8+ T cells) and cytokine levels in sensitized Balb/C mice with a marked inhibition72.

Alcoholic extract of the fruits of P. longum and its component piperine was studied for their immunomodulatory and antitumor activity. Alcoholic extract of the fruits and piperine were found to be cytotoxic. An aqueous extract of P. longum fruit powder showed 100% giardicidal activity. P. longum was found to offer protection against externally induced stress. A famous Ayurvedic preparation containing long pepper in pippli rasyana was tested in mice infected with Giardia lamblia and found to produce significant activation of macrophages, as shown by an increased MMI and phagocytic activity. Antioxidant activity: A combination of spices (Piper nigrum, Piper longum and Zingiber officinale), herbs (Cyperus rotundus and Plumbago zeylanica) and salts make up Amrita Bindu were tested for anti-oxidant activity.

The analysis revealed the antioxidant potential of the ingredients in the following order: Piper nigrum > Piper longum > Cyperus rotundus > Plumbago zeylanca > Zingiber officinale.

Analgesic activity: P. longum root for opioid type analgesia using rat tail-flick method and for NSAID type analgesia using acetic-acid writhing method by using pentazocine and ibuprofen as drug controls. An aqueous suspension of P. longum root powder was given orally to mice and rat. The study accomplished that P. longum root had weak opioid but potent NSAID type of analgesic activity. Insecticidal and acaricidal activity: The essential oil of the fruits showed insecticidal and insect-repellant activity 40.Toxicities of two piperidine alkaloids, pipernonaline and piperoctadecalidine, isolated from P. longum were determined against five species of arthropod pests. Both of the alkaloids showed insecticidal activity. Antifungal activity: The essential oil of the fruits showed fungicidal activity of P. longum L. The fruit-derived materials was tested towards six phytopathogenic fungi, Pyricularia oryzae, Rhizoctonia solani, Botrytis cineria, Phytophthora infestans, Puccinia recondita, and Erysiphe graminis using a whole plant in vivo method. A piperidine alkaloid, pipernonaline, was isolated from the hexane fraction of P.longum showed a potent fungicidal activity against P. recondita with 91% and 80% control values at the concentration of 0.5 and 0.25 mg ml−1, respectively.

Piper longum revealed that it has got a variety of pharmacologically and medicinally significant constituents, which are being utilized in the field ofAyurveda. (Maitreyi et al,2010) The primary constituents commonly used to treat chronic bronchitis, asthma, constipation, gonorrhea, paralysis of the tongue, diarrhea, cholera, chronic malaria, viral hepatitis, respiratory infections, stomachache, bronchitis, diseases of the spleen, cough, and tumors. (Suresh et al,2001)

The powdered fruits of the plant are extracted with dichloromethane at room temperature with stirring for 12 hours. The extract is filtered, concentrated in vacuum, and then the residue is purified on an alumina column. Pure piperine can also be obtained by crystallization from ethanol, which may be required for food and/or medicinal usages. Piperine is obtained directly from the crude residue in lesser amounts by extraction in alcohol, filtration and successive crystallization. Alkaloids and amides

The fruit of P. longum contains a large number of alkaloids and related compounds, the most abundant of which is piperine, together with methyl piperine, iperonaline, piperettine, asarinine, pellitorine, piperundecalidine, piperlongumine, piperlonguminine, refractomide A, pregumidiene, brachystamide, brachystamide-A, brachystine, pipercide, piperderidine, longamide and tetrahydropiperine, terahydro piperlongumine, dehydropipernonaline piperidine, piperine, terahydropiperlongumine and trimethoxy cinnamoyl-piperidine and piperlongumine have been found in the root of P. longum.

The fruit of P. longum contains tridecyl-dihydro-pcoumaarate,eicosanyl-(E)-p-coumarate and Z-12- octandecenoic –glycerol-monoester. Volatile oil The essential oil of the fruit P. longum is a complex mixture, the three major components of which are (excluding the volatile piperine) caryophyllene and pentadecane (both about 17.8%) and bisaboline (11%). Others include thujine, terpinoline, zingiberine, pcymene, p-methoxy acetophenone and dihydrocarveol. Long pepper contains less essential oil than its relatives (about 1%), which consists of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons and ethers (bisabolene, β-caryophyllene, βcaryophyllene oxide, each 10 to 20%; α-zingiberene, 5%), and saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons such as 18% pentadecane, 7% tridecane, 6% heptadecane. The volatile constituents and microbiological studies on Kaempheria galanga, Hibiscus abelmoschus, and Piper longum revealed presence of over 15 components which were further identified by GC-MS of the volatile oil of Piper longum. The variations in the piperine content with maturity were also monitored. The P. longum and H. abelmoschus seed oil had only antibacterial activities. The HPLCchromatogram of P.longum showed a homogeneous distribution of numerous peaks, with piperine and pellitorine as the predominant compounds. A simple and convenient HPTLC method was developed for standardization of the plant material using the two major constituents, pellitorine and dihydropiperlonguminine, as typhi, P. aeruginosa, E. coli and B. megaterium and one fungus, A. niger. Compared to streptomycin all the extracts exhibited a good antibacterial activity. The isolated constituents and n-hexane extract were found to show varying degree of antibacterial activity against all the tested bacteria. However, the aqueous extract did not show antibacterial activity against the tested bacteria


Anti apoptosis, anti oxidant, analgesic activity anti inflammatory, antiarthritic, immunomodulatory, anticancer, antitumour, antiasthmatic, antidiabetic, hypocholestrolaemic, hepatoprotective, antiobese larvicidal, antimicrobial, antidepressant, antiamoebic, adulticidal, coronaryvasodilation, anti fertility, antistress activity, protective myocardial activity, radioprotective activity,antifungal activity, antiplatelet ,melanin-inhibiting activity, anti snake venom activity, bioavailabity enhancers, antiulcers, insecticidal,acaricidal. (Dhanalakshmi et al,2016)



அளவைஅடைந்திருக்கும் வாத

விளைவைஎல்லாமறுக்கும் மெய்யே-மிளகின்காய்

கண்டவர்க்கும் இன்பமாய் காரிகையே ! சீமூலங்

கொண்டவர்க்கு நன்மருந்தாங்கூறு.

5. Piper nigrum L. Ten grams of the leaf paste is externally applied twice a day to treat the ringworm infection. (Anitha et al,2007). Fresh leaves are ground to paste; Leaf paste is externally applied twice a day to treat the ringworm infection. (Sivaperumal et al,2009) The biological role of this specie is explained in different experiments that peppercorn and secondary metabolites of Piper nigrum can be used. Other roles of this specie includes protection against diabetes induced oxidative stress, Piperine protect oxidation of various chemicals, decreased mitochondrial lipid peroxidation, inhibition of aryl hydroxylation, increased bioavailability of vaccine and sparteine, increase the bioavailability of active compounds, delayed elimination of antiepileptic drug, increased orocecal transit time, piperine influenced and activate the biomembrane to absorb variety of active agents, increased serum concentration, reducing mutational events, tumour inhibitory activity, Piperine inhibite mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, growth stimulatory activity and chemopreventive effect. ( Nisar et al,2012) Accordingly, in the present study, three solvents namely water, ethanol and methanol were selected for the plant extraction. In the present study, the black pepper and turmeric extracts exhibited antibacterial activity in all the three kinds of solvents. Aqueous, ethanolic and methanolic extracts of black pepper exhibited activity against B. megaterium, B. sphaericus, B. polymyxa, S. aureus and E. coli, this substantiate the findings of Ali, et al., (2007), who had been reported antibacterial activity of water, petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, ethanolic and methanolic black pepper extracts against B. megaterium, B. subtilis, S. aureus and E. coli. According to Harold (2004), the antimicrobial activity of black pepper is due to the presence of essential oil (3%), whose aroma is dominated by monoterpenes hydrocarbons: sabinene, β-pinene and limonene. Furthermore, terpinene, α-pinene, myrcene, and monoterpene derivatives like borneol, carvone, carvacrol, 1, 8-cineol and linalool are also present. Ram et al. Antimicrobial activity of Black pepper (aqueous decoction) showed strongest antibacterial activity comparable to aqueous decoction of Laurus nobilis and Pimpinella anisum at the concentration of 10μL/disc. In a recent study, the silver nanoparticles from leaf and stem extract of Piper nigrum were synthesized and then antibacterial activity of the synthesized silver nanoparticles of Piper nigrum was evaluated against agricultural plant pathogens. These silver nano-particles showed the excellent antibacterial activity against plant pathogens. In vivo analgesic activity of piperine in mice was evaluated.

6. The acetic acid-induced writhing and tail flick assay models in mice were used to evaluate the analgesic activity of piperine. These results revealed the analgesic activity of piperine which possibly mediated via opioid pathway Zoheir et al.


8. The phytochemical investigations of P. nigrum revealed that it contains variety of phytochemicals. Piperine was the first pharmacologically active compound isolated from different members of Piperaceae family. Many investigators isolated different types of compounds viz Phenolics, flavonoids, alkaloids, amides and steroids, lignans, neolignans, terpenes, chalcones etc and many other compounds. Some of the compounds are Brachyamide B, Dihydro-pipericide, (2E,4E)-N-Eicosadienoyl-pereridine, N-trans-Feruloyltryamine, N-Formylpiperidine, Guineensine, pentadienoyl as piperidine, (2E,4E)- Nisobuty- ldecadienamid, isobutyl-eicosadienamide, Tricholein, Trichostachine, isobutyl-eicosatrienamide, Isobutyl-octadienamide, Piperamide, Piperamine, Piperettine, Pipericide, Piperine, Piperolein B, Sarmentine, Sarmentosine, Retrofractamide. The different pharmacological activities were reported due to the presence of these phytochemicals. Piperine reported to have four isomers viz; Piperine, Isopiperine, Chavicine and Isochavicine. Among all isolated compounds isolated from P. nigrum. Piperine, pipene, piperamide and piperamine were found to possess diverse pharmacological activities.

9. Pharmacological properties

Antiapoptotic, Antibacterial, Anti-Colon toxin, Antidepressant, Antifungal, Antidiarrhoeal, Anti-inflammatory, Antimutagenic, Anti-metastatic activity, Antioxidative, Antiriyretic, Antispasmodic, Antispermatogenic, Antitumor, Antithyroid, Ciprofloxacin potentiator, Cold extremities, Gastric ailments, Hepatoprotective, Insecticidal activity, Intermittent fever and Larvisidal activity. Nisar et al.



கருஞ்சீ ரகத்தான் கரப்பானோடு புண்ணும்

வருஞ்சிராய்பீநசமு மற்றும் – அருந்தினால்

காய்ச்சல் தலைவலியுங் கண்வலியும் போமுலகில்

வாய்ச்ச மருந்தென வை

-(அகத்தியர் குணபாடம்)

Black seed oil is used as a natural remedy for a wide range of diseases, including various allergies. The plant's mechanism of action is still largely unknown. Due to the lack of study data on its efficacy in allergies, four studies on the clinical efficacy of Nigella sativa in allergic diseases are presented.

In these studies, a total of 152 patients with allergic diseases (allergic rhinitis, bronchial asthma, atopic eczema) were treated with Nigella sativa oil, given in capsules at a dose of 40 to 80 mg/kg/day. The patients scored the subjective severity of target symptoms using a predefined scale. Ulrich et al. The seeds of Nigella sativa Linn. (Ranunculaceae), commonly known as black seed or black cumin, are used in folk (herbal) medicine all over the world for the treatment and prevention of a number of diseases and conditions that include asthma, diarrhoea and dyslipidaemia. The seeds/oil have antiinflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic, antimicrobial and antineoplastic activity (Ali, et al,2003) In this randomized, controlled, double‐blinded clinical trial, we allocated new cases of hand eczema with 18–60 years of age in three therapeutic groups (Nigella, Betamethasone and Eucerin) by using permuted blocks for randomization. Patients applied medications twice a day and followed in a 4‐week period. The primary outcome of the study was changes in severity and life quality, which were assessed at the beginning, 14th and 28th days of the study by Hand Eczema Severity index (HECSI) and Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) respectively. Nigella might have the same efficacy as Betamethasone in improvement of life quality and decreasing severity of hand eczema. ,(Yousefi et al,2012) In the traditional system of medicine practised in the Arabian Gulf region, Black Seed is recommended for a wide range of ailments, including fever, cough, bronchitis, asthma, chronic headache, migraine, dizziness, chest congestion, dysmenorrhea, obesity, diabetes, paralysis, hemiplagia, back pain, infection, inflammation, rheumatism, hypertension, and gastrointestinal problems such as dyspepsia, flatulence, dysentery, and diarrhea. It has been used as a stimulant, diuretic, emmenagogue, lactagogue, anthelmintic, and carminative. Black Seed has also been used externally where it is applied directly to abscesses, nasal ulcers, orchitis, eczema, and swollen joints. The results of extensive pharmacological studies justify the broad, traditional therapeutic value of Black Seeds. These studies found Black Seed to have analgesic, antilipemic, postcoital contraceptive, diuretic and antihypertensive, bronchodilator and calcium antagonist, histamine release inhibitor, hepatoprotective, anthelmintic, antifungal, antimicrobial (against a wide range of organisms), anticancer, and antiinflammatory activities. (Tariq et al,2008) Isolated thymohydroquinone from the volatile oil of N. sativa, which was found to have high activity against gram-positive microorganisms, including Staphylococcus aureus. Diethyl-ether extract of N. sativa was reported to possess concentration dependent inhibitory effect on gram-positive bacteria (represented by S.aureus) and gram-negative bacteria (represented by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli) . It also showed synergistic effect with streptomycin and gentamycin and additive effect with spectinomycin, erythromycin, tobramycin, doxycycline, chloramphenicol, nalidixic acid, ampicillin, lincomycin and co-trimoxazole and successfully eradicated a non-fatal subcutaneous staphylococcal infection induced experimentally in mice when injected at the site of infection . N. sativaextract showed almost similar results to topical mupirocin in the treatment of neonates with staphylococcal pustular skin infections with no side effects. Microbial resistance to drugs is a common and important issue. Studies of the effects of N. sativa extractsin vitro against resistant microorganisms, including resistant S. aureus and P. aeruginosa, showed promising and good results against many multi-drug-resistant gram positive and gram negative bacteria.

The ethanolic extract of N. sativa seed was evaluated for antipsoriatc activity in vivo by using mouse tail model for psoriasis and in vitro by using sulforhodamine B assay employing HaCaT human keratinocyte cell lines. N. sativa seed and its oil were found to promote wound healing in farm animal. Moreover, ether extract of N. sativa seed applied topically onto staphylococcal-infected skin in mice enhanced healing by reducing total and absolute differential WBC counts, local infection and inflammation, bacterial expansion and tissue impairment. An ointment prepared from the alcoholic extract of N. sativa seeds was applied daily for 15 weeks to cutaneous leishmaniasis produced experimentally in mice by a subcutaneous inoculation of Leishmania major at the dorsal base of the tail. The morphology of the lesion and the body weight of mice were monitored daily. There was no significant difference between the average weight of mice receiving N. sativa extract ointment and controls but the lesion diameter and symptoms of inflammation were significantly lesser in the test group as compared to the controls N. sativa seed was tested against miracidia, cercariae and adult worms of Schistosoma mansoni and showed strong biocidal activity against all stages of the parasite, as well as an inhibitory effect on egg-laying of adult female worms, indicating an antischistosomal potential of the N. Sativa. were the first to demonstrate the inhibitory effect of the diethyl-ether extract of N. sativa extract against Candida albicans. The ether extract of N. sativa was reported to inhibit the growth of Candida yeasts in several organs in experimental animal infections. Lyophilized seed extract of N. sativa and its active ingredient, thymoquinone, showed significant skin darkening on the isolated melanophores of the wall lizard. The pigment cells when exposed to the extract or thymoquinone responded by distinct dispersion of melanin leading to skin darkening. The melanin dispersal effect was antagonized by anticholinergic drugs, atropine and hyoscine, and potentiated by an anticholinesterase agent, neostigmine. Earlier, carbonyl fraction of N. sativa and its active components, thymoquinone and nigellone were shown to counter the manifestations of allergic reactions; inhibition of histamine release from mast cells protection from histamine-induced bronchospasm in guinea pigs and decreases in the lung eosinophilia, elevated Th2 cytokines and raised IgE and IgG1 antibodies in a mouse model of allergic asthma induced by ovalbumin. The anticancer activity of N. sativa was revealed, for the first time, when an enhancement of the natural killer (NK) cell activity was observed in advanced cancer patients receiving multimodality immunotherapy program in which N. sativa seed was one of the components (Salih et al,2015)


Extensive studies were done to identify the composition of the black cumin seed, the ingredients of N. sativa seed includes: fixed oil, proteins, alkaloid, saponin and essential oil.

The fixed oil (32-40 %) contains: unsaturated fatty acids which includes: arachidonic, eicosadienoic, linoleic, linolenic, oleic, almitoleic, palmitic, stearic and myristic acid as well as beta-sitosterol, cycloeucalenol, cycloartenol, sterol esters and sterol glucosides.

The volatile oil (0.4-0.45 %) contains saturated fatty acids which includes: nigellone that is the only component of the carbonyl fraction of the oil, Thymoquinone (TQ), thymohydroquinone (THQ), dithymoquinone, thymol, carvacrol, α and β-pinene, d-limonene, d-citronellol, p -cymene volatile oil of the seed also contains: p-cymene, carvacrol, t-anethole, 4-terpineol and longifoline.

Black cumin seed have two different forms of alkaloids: isoquinoline alkaloid that includes: nigellicimine, nigellicimine n-oxide and pyrazol alkaloid that includes: nigellidine and nigellicine.

The nutritional compositions of N. sativa are vitamins, carbohydrates, mineral elements, fats and proteins that include eight or nine essential amino acids.

By sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) the fractionation of whole N. sativa seeds was done which shows the bands ranged from 94 to 100 kDa molecular mass.

Black cumin seeds also have saponin and alpha hederine and in trace amount has carvone, limonene and citronellol, as well as provide relatively good amounts of different vitamins and minerals such as Fe, Ca, K, Zn, P, Cu.

Most of the pharmacological effects are due to quinine constituent, of which TQ is the mainly abundant. TQ possess anticonvulsant activity, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, antibacterial and antifungal activity. Fatemeh et al.

Pharmacological properties

Antiinflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic, antimicrobial and antineoplastic activity. (Ali et al.,2013)



மன்னனையுங்கையேடுக்க வைத்தெஏற்றிநேயகற்றி

யுன்னு பிணிப்பணியை யோட்டுதலாற் – சொன்னேன்

எருக்கெனவே பூமி இனிலே விளங்கும்

அருக்க மறுக்கனென லாம்


The in vitro antimicrobial activity (well diffusion Method) of aqueous, hydro alcoholic, methanolic, chloroform and ethyl acetate extract of leaves of Enicostemma axillare has been prominent antimicrobial activity against S.aureus, Bacillus subtilis, proteus vulgaris, E. Coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Shigella sonni, Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans. The prominent antioxidant and antimicrobial activity may be due to presence of higher content of tannins, phenolic and saponins. Anti-inflammatory activity: This activity along with Mollugo caviama was observed. (Samraj et al.,2014) The decoctions attained from the leaves are used in rheumatism, abdominal ulcers, hernia, swelling, itches and insect poisoning.

(Sankaranarayanan et al,2010) Phytochemical investigation of E. axillare showed the presence of tannins, flavanoid, alkaloid, betacyanin, quinone, glycosides, and phenol. According to ethanobotanical claim this plant is used in typhoid fever, dropsy, malaria and skin diseases. A plant of Enicostema littorale contains phenolic and terpenoids compounds hence present study has undertaken to evaluate antimicrobial activity. Antimicrobial activity on Gram positive, Gram negative bacteria and some fungal strains have been performed. Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella sonnei, Pseudomonas aerogenosa, Salmonella typhi, Aeromonas hydrophila, Candida albicans was used as microbial and fungal strains for the study were Ciproflaxin. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of aqueous and ethyl acetate, against S. aureus, A. hydrophila, K. pneumoniae, V. fischeri, B. subtilis, S. paratypii, S. pyogenes and E. coli were determined by broth micro dilution method as per the standard National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS).

The prominent antimicrobial activity may be due to presence of higher content of tannins, phenolic acid, flavanoid, terpenoids, glycoside (Praveena et al,2012) E. axillare (Lam.) A. Raynal (Gentianaceae) is used as laxative and in the treatment of rheumatism. Aerial parts Stomachic, bitter tonic, laxative, carminative, bug bites, swellings, depurative, dropsy, locally applied in snake bite, fever. Pavithra et al. The whole plant is used in traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases. The decoction is used to treat skin diseases such as kiranthi, itching and scabies. Phytochemical screening was carried out to identify the active functional groups of E. littorale plant which revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, steroids, flavonoids, glycosides and triterpenoids. Antibacterial activity of the aqueous extract of the whole plant of E. littorale on eight bacterial isolates was investigated. They were Staphylococcus aureus – NCTC 6571, Escherichia coli – NCTC -10418, Pseudomonas aeruginosa – NCTC – 10662 and five wild strains of Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).

Antibacterial activity was performed by the cut well diffusion and agar dilution methods. The aqueous extract of E. littorale showed growth inhibitory action against S. Aureus. (Thayalini et al,2012) Enicostemma axillare (Lam.) A. Raynal (Gentianaceae) Vern. name: Reshka, Gulimidi Habit: Herb. Uses Scabies, itches. Leaves crushed with camphor, mixed in coconut oil and used as an external application. (Sudhakar et al,2009)


This plant comprises of different chemical compounds. Many compounds have been isolated from the plant, E. littorale. Tanna et al. reported that the aerial part of the plant gave 34% of dry alcoholic extract and 15.7% of ash. The presence of minerals like iron, potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, silica, phosphate, chloride, sulphate and carbonate were estimated in the qualitative analysis of ash. Natarajan and Prasad reported the presence of five alkaloids, two sterols and volatile oil. Betulin, a triterpene sapogenin was also isolated by earlier workers. Monoterpene alkaloids like enicoflavin, gentiocrucine and seven different flavonoids were isolated from the alcoholic extract and the structures were identified as apigenin, genkwanin, isovitexin, swertisin, saponarin, 5-o glucosylswertisin and 5-o glucosylisoswertisin were also isolated by Goshal et al. The presence of catechins, saponins, steroids, sapogenin, triterpenoids, flavonoids and xanthones and a new flavone C-glucoside named as Verticilliside was isolated for the first time this species was reported. Swertiamarin compound was isolated from E. littorale by using alcoholic extract. Six phenolic acids like vanillic acid, syringic acid, p-hydroxy benzoic acid, protocatechuic acid, p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid were also found. Methanol extract of E. littorale was found to be containing different aminoacids like L-glutamic acid, tryptophane, alanine, serine, aspartic acid, L-proline, L-tyrosine, threonine, phenyl alanine, L-histidine monohydrochloride, methionine, iso leucine, L-arginine monohydrochloride, DOPA, L-Glycine, 2-amino butyric acid and valine.


Antimicrobial, antihelminthic, actinociceptive, anti oxidant,anti innflammatory, anti tumour, heptoprotective,hepatomodulatory, antihyperlipidaemic, hypoglycaemic,antihyperinsulinemic, diabetic neuropathy (Rajamani et al,2013)



பெரும்பாடு மேகம்போம் பேரா துடலில்

அரும்பிய புண்ணாருமிவை யல்லால்- குறும்பாம்

எலும்புருக்கிபுண்சீழும் ஏகும் உலகில்

சலம்பருகுங் குங்கிலியத் தால்

-(அகத்தியர் குணபாடம்)

Tamil : Kungiliyam, Kungiligam, Saruva rasam, Gugglu, Kukkil, Shorea robusta in Siddha Medicine. Types of Kungliyam 1. Parangi sambirani – indian olibanum (Boswellia serrata) 2. Velllai kungiliyam – conkany resin (Boswellia serrata glabra) 3. Kundrukam – White or pinney dammer(vateria indica) 4. Karuppu kungiliyam- Black dammar – (Canarium strictum) 5. Poonai kan kungiliyam – Cats eye resin (Pistacia lentiscus) 6. Gugglu – Indian bdellium (Balsamodendron roxburghii) 7. Mai satchi- (Foreign guggal) (Balsamodendron mukal) 8. Seemai kungiliyam (Australian dammar) (Agathis australia) There are also other varieties such as amboyna dammar, Burma dammar, East Indian dammar, Rock dammar, Tambago dammar etc. (Merish et a,2013). The topical application of extract(s) of Shorea robusta young leaves, and its isolated compounds ursolic acid and bergenin may promote wound healing activity in Excision Incision and Dead space wound models in rats, this study provides the pharmacological evidence of the folk use of Shorea robusta young leaves, for wound healing. (Hemanta et al,2013) Shorea robusta Gaertn., Dipterocarpaceae Nep. Sal, Sakhuwa Use: Bark paste is used externally to cure cut, wound and ulcers. Habitat: Forests, Thansen, Tadi Likhu watershed, Nuwakot district (Ananda et al,2007) Shorea robusta is used for Eczema (Dipterocarpaceae). This paper is an attempt to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities and the possible mechanism of action of tender leaf extracts of Shorea robusta, traditionally used in ailments related to inflammation. The acetic-acid-induced writhing and tail flick tests were carried out for analgesic activity, while the anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated in carrageenan-and dextran- induced paw edema and cotton-pellet-induced granuloma model (Chattopadhyay et al,2012). Sal phang(local name) Shorea robusta Stem bark(used part)juice is used for the ulceration of mouth. (Anisuzzaman et al.,2007)


S. robusta contain ursolic acid and α-amyrenone, α & βamyrin, bark contains ursonic acid and oleanane, Shoreaphenol seed contains hopeaphenol, leucoanthocyanidin, and 3,7-dihydroxy-8- methoxyflavone7-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)-α-lrhamnonopyrano- syl(1→6)-β-d-glucopyranoside31 ; while heartwood contains germacrene-D 24 . The isolation of βamyrin, friedelin, β-sitosterol, pheophytin-α, and dihydroxyisoflavone from mature leaves was also reported

Pharmacological properties

Analgesic, antipyretic, anti obesity, anti inflammatory, anti ulcer, antinociceptive, anti microbial, immune modulatory, woundhealing activity, kairomonal activity. (Rajesh et al,2013)


This paper exposes the review of kukkiladhi choornam for eczema. The ingredients such as Zingiber officinalis, Piper longum, Piper nigrum, Enicostema axillare, Shorea robusta, Nigella sativum shows the antimicrobial activity, anti inflammatory activity, immune modulatory activity. And tribal peoples which following the ingredients for skin disease. Therefore the internal medicine is used for skin disease and many researches done in the medicine. In future further studies and case reports are needed for this internal medicine. It may helpful for the dermatologist and research scholars.


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